I'm writing this document on July 11, 2014. But, I could not
cross-compile 32-bit OpenGL program in 64-bit Ubuntu (until I found this work
around, of course) only because of a known bug. I hope someone fixes it
and un-necessitate this document soon. I saw some questions from someone
who were trying to do the same, but I didn't find an answer nowhere.
Probably they are still looking for an answer. I hope this work around helps them.
Until now, I was compiling 32-bit binary on 32-bit Ubuntu, and 64-bit binary
on 64-bit Ubuntu. I launch a different virtual machine in VirtualBox for
each case. But, it's not very efficient. It is the same operating
system. I have been wanting to build and package both 32-bit and 64-bit version binary
from one script.
There are options -m32 and -m64 of gcc, which force the compiler to spit
out 32-bit and 64-bit binary respectively. However, if I tried gcc -m32 in
64-bit Ubuntu, I was getting an error complaining predef.h not found.
Today, somehow that problem came back to my mind. I searched for the solution and learned that what I needed was multilib
Further search indicated that not all libraries are as convenient as multilib,
but I can do sudo apt-get install lib???:i386 to get 32-bit version
libraries in most cases. That made me hopeful. I thought it should
be easy to set up cross-compiling so that I can compile both 32-bit and 64-bit
binaries in 64-bit Ubuntu.
Then I hit a brick wall. After installing multilib, gcc told me that
libGL and libGLU cannot be found. Not a big deal. I should be able
to apt-get install libgl1-mesa-dev:i386 and libglu1-mesa-dev:i386 to install
32-bit version of libGL and libGLU, right? Unfortunately it turned out not
so easy. apt-get gave me an error and could not install 32-bit libGL and
libGLU. Search implied that it is one of the known bugs of Ubuntu (or
If Microsoft leaves known bugs unfixed long time, it's a shame.
Like Microsoft Office Drawing Tools have been broken for long time. But, Linux
is an open source software. All I can do is shrug and give up, usually.
But, this time I didn't give up. What gcc is complaining was missing
32-bit libGL and libGLU. I have them in my 32-bit Ubuntu. I can copy
them from there. About half-day struggle, this strategy worked. I
finally was able to build 32-bit OpenGL program in 64-bit Ubuntu and run.
My impression is that some people are having the same problem. I
summarize what I did below. Hope this information helps some fellow OpenGL
Step 1. Installing Mesa libraries in 32-bit Ubuntu
I am assuming you are running Ubuntu in VirtualBox. You should be able
to do the same from a natively-running Ubuntu. You probably need to have 32-bit
Ubuntu of the same version as your 64-bit Ubuntu. I am using Ubuntu 12.04.
The goal is to copy OpenGL libraries, you need to install libgl1-mesa-dev and
libglu1-mesa-dev, at least.
Then, create a shared folder of VirtualBox. You will copy library files
to the shared folder, which later will be copied into 64-bit Ubuntu.
Step 2. Copy Mesa libraries to the shared folder in 32-bit
Type the following:
% locate libGL
to find where Mesa libraries are located. It shows you libraries that
starts with libGL. So, you will also see GLU libraries.
In my environment, I had to copy:
to the shared folder.
I also had to copy ALSA and Pulse Audio libraries, which also were not
cross-compiling friendly. I could use the same technique for these
libraries. Of course if you only need OpenGL, you don't need ALSA and
You don't need 32-bit Ubuntu at this point. You may want to keep it
only for testing your 32-bit binary.
Step 3. Installing multilib in 64-bit Ubuntu
Type following in 64-bit Ubuntu to install multilib packages.
% sudo apt-get install gcc-multilib
% sudo apt-get install g++-multilib
This creates a directory for 32-bit libraries. In my environment, it
was /lib32. But, some people are saying it is /usr/lib32. You can
find by yourself.
Step 4. Copying 32-bit library files to the 32-bit library
If you haven't mounted the shared folder where 32-bit library files are
copied, please do so now. If you are running native Ubuntu, both 32-bit
and 64-bit, maybe you can do it via a USB drive. What's important is to
copy 32-bit library to the appropriate directory. In my environment, I had
% sudo cp /ysshare/libGL* /lib32
/ysshare was my shared directory.
You may want to keep copied libraries in a separate location and make a
symbolic link so that you can clean up the copied libraries easier if necessary
Step 5. Installing other 32-bit libraries
You also need the following packages to cross-compile an OpenGL program.
% sudo apt-get install libX11-6:i386
% sudo apt-get install libxcb-glx0:i386
% sudo apt-get install libdrm-dev:i386
% sudo apt-get install libxdamage-dev:i386
% sudo apt-get install libx11-xcb-dev:i386
% sudo apt-get install libglapi-mesa:i386
% sudo apt-get install libxext6:i386
% sudo apt-get install libxxf86vm-dev:i386
Then, all you need to do is compiling with -m32 option. I tested with
PolygonCrest and YSFLIGHT. I could build 32-bit binaries of the both
programs in 64-bit Ubuntu, which ran ok in both 32-bit and 64-bit Ubuntu.
If you mixed up something, you may see an error message whey you try to run
your 32-bit OpenGL program in 64-bit Ubuntu like lib???.so.1 not found.
Then, you may have to do:
% sudo ldconfig
Probably that will fix.
So, now I am able to compile both 64-bit and 32-bit binaries of PolygonCrest
from one script. I need to do the same for MacOSX, then I can upload the